Lister 5/1 Diesel

Lister Restoration & Rebuild

Obtaining & Restoring Your First Engine

Chapter 6 -

Engine Re-Assembly

Assuming that you are ready to reassemble the engine, and everything is to hand, we will start with the largest lump, the crankcase. Once cleaned up and repainted (if required) the crankcase can be set up in position on your bench or blocks ready for re-assembly. Don't forget that when the engine is all assembled, it will weigh half a ton, so think about the implications of moving it later on. Single cylinder units are more reasonable but still very heavy to move without extra help.

Before assembly, get out your box of taps and dies and clear out all the threads in the block, and also all the exposed studs. The oil suction boss at the bottom of the block and the threads on the top block face in particular could usefully be cleaned out of debris.

While you are there, the centre main bearing oil trough is easily accessible through a piston hole at the non-governor end, or through the main bearing hole at the same end. Clear it out thoroughly of any loose material, as anything in there will go straight into the centre bearing as soon as you run the engine.

The non-governor end camshaft bearing lubricating hole can be poked through with a drill or something similar, just to make sure there is no sludge blocking it up. As the bearing relies entirely on this hole for its lubrication, it is pretty important to keep it clear. This hole is directly below the hexagonal brass plug marked 'OIL' on its top face, and referred to in the Lister handbook.

If you removed it on strip-down, clean up and fit the oil pipe from the oil pump on the front to the manifold at the back. The rear distribution manifold isn't fitted until later, but the front union nut needs to be fitted and tightened now while you have the room. It will have to be positioned correctly to mate with the manifold, so temporarily fit the manifold in place and line up the pipe and tighten the union. Don't overdo it, it is only a thin brass union nut. Remove the manifold once the pipe is in position.

Next item will be the camshaft, and unless you have work to do on any of the cams or the governor, this can be put straight back in. First make sure that you have the tappets put in place from inside the crankcase, either within the tappet housings and wired in place, or on their own and again wired to stay up as high as you can get them so they are clear of the camshaft when you fit it (The housings fit from on top of the crankcase face and the tappets come up from below) The old wooden/spring washing pegs can be used to hold the tappets up instead of wire if you prefer. Note that the exhaust and inlet tappets are mechanically different, the exhaust having the removable pushrod cup, which is what the valve lifter cams fit under when you use them to hold the exhaust valves off their seats.

Clean out the two oil holes in the centre bearing, lubricate copiously, and smear a bit of oil over the cams, and the outrigger bearings at each end while you have the oil can handy. Remove the loose cam from the non-governor end of the engine (which you took off earlier to get the camshaft out) and carefully thread the camshaft through the block from the governor end, taking care not to bang any cams against the internal block stiffeners.

The centre camshaft bearing block (10/2 only) has to be located in its housing in the centre of the block, and once this is done, the bearing has to be rotated to bring the recess in the bearing for the locking bolt in line with the hole in the top face of the crankcase. Fit the bolt that came out of this hole and leave finger tight for now.

If you have a replacement taper pin for the end cam, then fit it now, taking care to support the camshaft underneath that cam while you bang the pin home. Peen over the bit of pin sticking out to prevent it working back out.

If you cannot get a replacement taper pin, you can either use a parallel solid pin or a tubular roll pin in either single coil or spiral format. Purists may object to the use of modern fittings, but if you cannot get original parts I cannot see any objection. They also have the advantage of being easier to get out again next time (what do you mean, next time ?)

You can buy taper pins to BS46 Part 3, which are metric in size and unhardened, which go up in 1mm diameter steps, with a taper of 1 in 50. Prices industrially are about 20p each plus VAT for quantities of 25. Imperial sizes are also available if you look around. Taper pins are not hardened.

Parallel pins (which are hardened) are available to BS1804 Grade 1, and come similarly sized to the taper type but slightly cheaper.

Tension pins are also available, sizes again roughly as per taper pins. These are tubular types with a slot along their length which closes when the pin is driven into a hole. Not recommended where shock loads are likely.

Spiral tension pins are the best of the hollow types, as they have a spirally wound form which imparts greater strength to the pin. Recommended where shock and shear loads are high. If the camshaft outrigger bearings, are damaged, and Listers are out of stock, you may have a problem. You used to be able to buy standard steel-backed phosphor bronze bushes from bearing stockists, but this seems to have died out now. Glacier Bearings springs to mind as a supplier, but if nothing is available you will have to get one turned out of phosphor bronze bar or tube.

The bearing will need to have about 3-5 thou clearance between the shaft and the bearing, and as the shaft is not lubricated except by oil mist, the bearing should have a groove down its length to allow any surface dirt to come off the bearing surface and to allow what oil there may be around to get inside the bearing. Look at the main bearings to see how this should be done. Oil bearing groove cutting chisels used to be available, but where are they (and their skilled users) now ?

For occasional running it would be possible to fit a discreet grease or oil gun nipple leading to the bearing, with a blanking plug for those purists who ask what the nipple is for. One shot would probably last a season.

The injection pump plunger and roller will need checking before use. The roller itself is still available as a spare part from the injection repair people, and the plunger just transmits the cam movement to the pump, and does not require any special attention other than some graphite loaded grease or heavy engine oil on its sliding bearing surface before assembly.

Note that the screw and locknut that keep the plunger in place have to be set to allow the plunger free up and down movement, so don't just wind it in tight and hope for the best.

Both the end housings have identical gaskets between themselves and the crankcase. The governor end housing has oil being flung around by the timing gears, and will need a decent joint. The non-governor end is not so critical, but as you have to make them anyway, you may as well make two (or get originals from David Harris, or Lister-Petter dealers)

I will not go into the use of small ball peine hammers, dirty fingers and ball bearings to make gaskets here, but there is no excuse for not having nicely cut proper gaskets at every point, except for the cylinder head where there is a copper/asbestos joint. Note that compressed graphited-asbestos gasket material or similar is better for water joints than plain paper. Payen Ltd. used to supply blue and red material like this, but as more and more people buy ready-made gaskets, the supply seems to be drying up.

Use heavy grease or a non-hardening jointing compound such as Hylomar or Golden Hermetite on the gasket. Don't use Red Hermetite unless you clean off the residue that invariably gets everywhere afterwards. (use meths on a rag or tissue) Lightly cover both sides of the gasket and fit the housing to the crankcase at the non governor end only. (The other end cannot be fitted yet, as you have to time the engine with the crankshaft and idler gears)

Don't overtighten the retaining screws, tighten each up a little at a time and work across the housing diagonally to ensure that the housing is pulled down evenly. Check that the camshaft is free to turn, then tighten up the centre bearing housing screw.

Make up or buy gaskets for the two main bearing housings, and fit new felt rings inside the outer groove of the housing. Next you will need your two assistants to help you refit the crankshaft.

Assuming that you have checked your bearings and journals and you are happy with what you have found, the crankshaft can be very carefully fed into the crankcase from the governor housing end, keeping the timing gear at the governor housing end. Once in place, but held by your assistants, lubricate the top centre bearing shell half and fit into place.

Move the crankshaft up so that the centre bearing journal registers in the bearing. Take the bearing housing that came off the non-governor end, lubricate the bearing and crank journal well and push over the crankshaft and on to the crankcase, not forgetting to fit the new gasket before you do.

Place the governor end bearing cap on the crankcase temporarily, to take the weight of the crankshaft while you fit the centre bearing cap.

It is worth checking the crankshaft end float before too much gear gets fitted to the crankshaft. Fit both end housings with a single gasket and tighten the nuts. The end float should be 0.005" - 0.010" (0.13 - 0.25mm) Adjust by means of the housing gaskets - fit more to increase and remove to decrease. Where possible, keep the number of gaskets the same on each side.

The centre bearing is supported by the top of the crankcase casting and a removable cap. The cap is held by two studs or bolts that come from on top of the crankcase between the cylinder blocks. (The recesses that the bolt heads sit in were cleaned out when you had the crankcase cleaned weren't they ?)

Fit the two bolts (longer one at the camshaft side) putting a bit of jointing compound under both the heads (don't fit any type of sealing washer) and offer up the centre bearing lower half, keeping the longer bolt hole away from you towards the camshaft. Fit the two castellated nuts on to the cap bolts, and tighten by hand.

At this stage the crankshaft should be free to rotate with no binding or roughness. Remove the governor housing end main bearing and leave the crankshaft hanging on the centre and non-governor housing end bearing. Get the timing gear and idler bolt, check the bearing surfaces, and if OK, lubricate and fit inside the crankcase as follows:-

1) Turn the camshaft so that the timing mark struck between two teeth in the form of an 'I' is at the four o'clock position.
2) Turn the crankshaft until the timing gear keyway on the crankshaft gear is at the twelve o'clock position.
3) Offer up the timing gear, and allowing for any slight misalignment of the gears, fit the gear between the camshaft and crankshaft gears so that the two 'O's between the crankshaft and idler gears are in line, and the two 'I's between the camshaft and idler gears are also in line.

The relationship between these gears is highly critical and MUST be right. It is not difficult to get the setup right, and if you have problems, check that the idler gear is the right way round, as the marks are only on one side.

Note that the crankshaft/idler gear marks are offset to the 11 o'clock position when all is set up correctly.

Fit the idler gear shaft, having first oiled the bearing surface, which also doubles as a stud for the crankshaft main bearing housing at the governor end of the engine, and having lubricated the governor weight pivots and the governor sleeve for the governor arm, fit the governor housing (with new gasket) so that the governor arm fits into the governor sleeve on the end of the governor gear.

(Don't forget that the plain bearing for the camshaft and the fuel pump plunger on this housing needs the same check and lubrication as the other end)

Refit the governor end main bearing housing.

Tighten up the crankshaft bearing and governor housing nuts, holding the idler gear shaft end by passing a spanner through the top of the crankcase. Check again that all is free to rotate, and that no nasty noises come from inside. Pour a bit of oil over the gear teeth on the timing gear set, and rotate the engine to spread the oil over the gears.

If you didn't fit the housings with the tappets earlier, they can now be lubricated inside with engine oil and GENTLY dropped into place, keeping to their original positions if possible. Fit the four-legged retainer to each pair of tappets, and tighten the retaining nut for each. Rotate the crankshaft to check etc.

Go back to the centre main bearing now, and get a decent spanner that will go on each of the two nuts properly and with a snug fit on the nut. Don't use a wrong sized spanner as you will skin your knuckles when it slips off.

Tighten each nut equally in stages, so that the cap pulls up against the crankshaft evenly. Check the crankshaft is still free, then fully tighten both nuts up. Check crank rotation again after they are tight, just in case.

Fit new split pins with the open ends toward you, this is so that you can get them off if you ever do this again. (!) Bend one leg down and leave the other straight. Note that I am assuming that you have got the correct length split pins here, and you are not going to have to cut them off in place.

Once that has been done, check over the nuts on the camshaft and main bearing external housings and have a cup of tea.

Big end bearings and small end bearings are both in need of inspection before re-assembly. The small end bush can be checked by placing an oiled gudgeon pin through the bush and checking for play. At room temperature, the pin should be reasonably tight, with little, if any, play. Once the bearing warms up as the engine runs, the clearances will increase, but only slightly, thus the clearance when cold should be minimal.

Big end clearance is similarly checked on the crankshaft, and once in place and tightened up, there should be no up and down (perpendicular) movement at all, but some side to side rock (along the axis of the crankshaft) is usual due to bearing side clearances.

Check that you have identified each conrod and its corresponding position on the crankshaft (not required on singles !) and that the lubricating oil splashers on the big-end have the machined open slot facing the crankcase opening. Fit the rod and the nuts, tighten by hand until they are both in place, then fully tighten and fit split pins as per the centre main bearing. Once the conrods are in place, check again that the crankshaft rotates normally, and be careful as you do, that the conrods don't crash against the crankcase holes through which they protrude.

Next get the oil manifold and feed pipes from your spares box and give them all a good clean, especially the manifold which will tend to collect sludge in the body where the oil slows down before going out to the oil pipes.

Remembering the location of the two hidden studs inside the crankcase inspection door, fit the manifold onto the studs while at the same time aligning the inlet oil boss with the oil pipe from the front of the engine. Fit all bolts and nuts and tighten loosely by hand.

Sort out which feed pipes go where (They are all fairly obvious once you try to fit one wrong) and fit them between the manifold and the big end troughs, and the main bearing feed holes above the bearings. Note that the pipes do not seem to go into the actual holes in the bearings, just into the trough above.

The pipe for the centre bearing feed is a bit of a fiddle as it is inside the crankcase and above the level of the top of the crankcase door. It can be done !

When they are all in place, tighten up the five pipes, large feed union and the two manifold retaining nuts. Using an oil can, fill the three main bearing oil troughs with about a tablespoon of oil.

At the other side of the engine, get the oil pump and fittings out and check the condition of the pump plunger, the two non-return or check valves in the pump body, and in the suction body at the bottom/front of the engine.

If the balls are in good order, give them a sharp tap with a small brass or copper drift onto their seats and leave them alone to get over this unprovoked attack. This will form a new seat in the brass union (bottom) and cast iron seat (top).

The pump plunger is the only moving part in the pump, and is a very simple and reliable piece of kit. As it runs in oil all day long, it should not be showing any signs of wear or seizure at all. Its surface will be black (through the hardening process) with a small area rubbed away where the sideways thrust of the oil pump cam pushes the plunger over one side in the pump bore.

The check valve and spring in the base of the pump has already been dealt with, so the pump can be well lubricated and fitted to the crankcase with a new gasket. If you have an earlier engine with a gauge and tap, check that they are OK and refit.

Note that the oil pump is different on the single cylinder engines, and is mounted at the end of the crankcase rather than the middle. The priming pump handle for the oil pump is a feature of the 5/1 and the 3/1 engines only, and I cannot find any reference to it in the parts list for the 10/2.

Fit the oil filter gauze tube into the large boss that goes into the base of the timing side of the block, and fit the boss to the block, using a bit of thread sealant on the thread to stop oil leaking out.

A washer is fitted between the locknut for the suction union and the crankcase boss, and although one is shown in the spares list, there is no mention of the washer material. David Harris advises that they were indeed copper, but a red fibre one could be used in an emergency. Be careful not to overtighten the joint and damage the washer.

The 'pigs-tail' pipe between the oil suction union and the oil pump inlet carries the oil up to the pump from the sump. If there are any cracks or leaks in the joints here, you will not get any oil pressure at all, as the pump will suck air. Check that all the unions are in decent condition and the conical seats are clean and not scored. Don't put lashings of sealer over the joint, especially Red Hermetite or even Calortite as I have seen used. The joint will seal properly if it is in basically good condition.

The gauge and tap should only be used for short lengths of time if you have them fitted for reasons explained earlier. If you want to see oil flowing before you start your engine, turn the engine over with the gauge removed and the oil pressure tap opened. This is also a good way of clearing air locks from the oil supply side.

Once the crankcase lower parts are in place, the cylinder blocks and pistons can be refitted.

Fit new cylinder block gaskets (Noting the comments later about piston to cylinder head clearances) and fit them in place before the pistons are put on the conrods. It does save the gaskets getting mauled about while you fit the gudgeon pins.

Pistons should be clean and grey/black on the skirts, with no broken rings and more importantly no sections missing from the oil control ring which is very fragile indeed.

If the rings are free in their grooves and there is a clean contact area all round the circumference, then just wash them off in diesel or TVO then coat them in clean engine oil. Check the fit of the gudgeon pin in the piston, and also check that the gudgeon pin outside pin diameter is clean and shiny without any signs of scuffing.

It would be unusual to see any cracking in a pin of this size, but if you feel that something has happened to the engine that might overstress the pin, it can be crack detected by the spray or magnetic methods by most engine reconditioners. If you cannot get it done locally, ask for a number of somebody who does the work.

Lubricate the gudgeon pin well and then refit the whole piston to the engine as follows:

Pistons are refitted by reversing the dismantling order; if you marked each piston on removal then you can fit it in exactly the same position that it came from. As the pistons do not have split skirts for accommodating thermal expansion (as modern pistons used to have, but don't now, see below) the piston in theory can go either way round in the bore.

I always like to refit such items in the same running position as they were before dismantling, and it is a good working practice, even on old low-speed engines.

Most 50's and 60's engines had split skirts which had to go with the split away from the thrust side. Modern cam-ground pistons are always fitted so that the extra asymmetrical clearances machined into the piston are in the correct relationship with the bore which is of course circular. Thus you now have pistons with marks on to indicate the correct installation position.

For students of engine theory and practice, a good book to get hold of is the late Phil Irvings 'Tuning For Speed', which although aimed at motorcycle engine enthusiasts, gives a very thorough treatise of matters relating to single and twin cylinder engines and also goes into material selection, lubrication, making up your own valves and valve guides, pistons, rings and even fabricating a conrod from sheet steel !

It is out of print now as far as I know, but copies come up at autojumbles (I saw a copy at Beaulieu this year) and it is a very good technical and more importantly, practical book, which goes into a lot of related items such as tool handling, torque tables, clearances for plain bearings etc. Well worth reading.

After his death a couple of years ago, a couple of biographies were published which also made excellent reading; Phil was heavily involved in the HRD/Vincent motorcycles in the 50's in case you didn't know.

Getting back to the engine, the base gaskets for the cylinder blocks have to be sufficiently thick to keep a clearance between the cylinder head and the piston crown (for obvious reasons !) If the block is assembled with the piston on the conrod and then the height of the piston crown above the top flange is measured, the thickness of the base gaskets can be calculated.

The clearance has to be 0.045" - 0.050", so a quick bit of arithmetic will give you the thickness of gaskets required. If you already know how many gaskets you need, then proceed with the next stages.

The factory method was to fit four gaskets as a matter of course on assembly, and if too high, raise the block slightly and tear one out. If too low, then you had to lift off the cylinder and fit another gasket(s). David Harris mentioned that if you couldn't get clearance down to 0.050", then the chances were that the conrod had been hydraulicked by either taking in fluid while running, or the operator had been too fond of using 'quick-start' spray to get the engine going.

Most of us know that while quick-start can be useful for a really obstinate engine, and when, for reasons beyond your control, it absolutely HAS to start now, it has no equal. It has, however, probably caused more piston ring damage in diesel engines than everything else put together. The 'crack' as the engine fires is usually the death-knell of your favourite set of rings. Don't use it on the 10/2 or any other engine unless in a real emergency. If you cannot get an engine to run, sort out why, don't just rely on shortcuts.

Put each piston back in place on its respective conrod and replace the spring circlip(s) that you took out. Don't use the circlips again if they are damaged or stretched, try to get replacements of the same type or use the later type with holes for the circlip pliers (I think that the grooves may need machining to a square section for use with modern circlips, as the older wire clips had a semicircular groove in the piston)

If a circlip comes out when running, it will very quickly scrape a large piece of your favourite cylinder away, and the resulting swarf will get into all the bearings and down the side of the piston. You have been warned !

Once the pistons are sitting on the rods, the cylinders can be offered up and fitted. As with the dismantling, help is definitely required here, as the possibilities of damage are many.

The piston rings need to be compressed with a commercial vehicle ring compressor which is a variable diameter steel shim cylinder. Before tightening the adjuster up with the compressor over the piston, make sure that all the rings are in their grooves, particularly the oil control ring.

The ring compressor will tighten up until nearly all the clearance between the piston and the inside of the device is taken up. At this stage you will need to lower the cylinder block down slowly onto the block studs, while offering the top of the piston up to the bottom of the cylinder.

The cylinder opening at the base has a decent chamfer on it, so you should be able to get the piston crown inside without any problems. Keep the cylinder stationary while you push the piston out of the spring compressor and up into the cylinder bore. Keep the compressor hard up against the cylinder base as all times, or one of the rings will pop out between the device and the bore and will not go in.

If the piston and cylinder are kept square to each other, the piston will usually go in without any problem. David Harris suggests a couple of pieces of hardwood, 8" long x 1" wide x 3/4" thick (200mm x 25mm x 19mm approx) to support the piston on while you lower the cylinder, then turn the crank until the piston is pulled down onto the wood to hold it in place. I have fitted up to six-inch pistons like this and it is a case of taking your time and making sure that the piston rings have no chance of slipping out of the compressor and expanding.

Most ring compressor tools have little pressed lips around their circumference at one end. These are to stop the compressor itself going up the bore with the piston as you heave and push. You will quickly see this happening if you use the wrong end ! Use plenty of oil on everything at this stage, and be careful not to damage the cylinder base gasket.

It is quite possible (and in some cases may be more desirable) to fit the cylinders first and then lower the piston with the conrod fitted down the bore, fitting the conrod to the crankshaft afterwards.

There is no reason why you cannot do this, but I have tried to allow more visibility for the fitting of the conrod assembly to the crank, albeit with slightly more huffing and puffing to fit the cylinders afterwards. Do it whichever way you prefer. Beginners may find the second method slightly more easy, but there is not a lot in it.

Once you have both cylinders fitted (You did put the base gaskets in place didn't you ?) you can look into getting the heads sorted out.

My valves were pretty clean, and only needed a wipe over. The springs were cleaned up on a wire wheel, and the others parts just required degreasing.

Grind in the valves using fine paste only (as they were not fitted into hardened seats) and thoroughly clean off all traces of paste.

If you have a valve or valves which need refacing, then most local engine shops can do the job for about 10 per head which includes refacing the seats. Ask them to take off a minimum of material, and also warn them that the seats are not hardened inserts.

The guides are replaceable, noting that the position of the inlet and exhaust guides is different between the two heads on a 10/2. Unless you have really bad slop (more than 0.010" clearance) you can re-use the old guides.

The inlet valve guides are plain finished, and the exhaust guides are threaded, with a hexagon head on the top end. If you have to fit new guides, then be very careful how they are fitted, as they are obviously an interference fit in the head and should preferably be pressed in rather than knocked in (inlets only) . The cylinder end of the exhaust guides have a recess which tends to collect carbon, but is intended as a heat shield. This recess is fairly delicate and can be damaged when handling or inserting the guides.

Grinding in the valves should present no real problems to anyone, and re-assembly of the valves into the head using a large valve spring compressor should take only a few minutes. Check that all the studs for the various ports are cleaned up and the set of matching nuts are clean and ready to fit.

The cold start device has already been covered, so the last item to fit is the injector. It only goes in one way, and don't forget the copper nozzle washer which will come with a reconditioned injector or you will have to buy a couple from your local injector shop. They are readily available, so get a couple of spares while you are there.

Fit the injector into its hole, squirm it about on the seating washer just to ensure that the washer is flat on the bottom of the hole before tightening everything up. Tighten the two nuts equally and evenly, do not screw one down first and then the other, as you will cause problems with the injector. Use the torque figures at the end of the book if you can't trust your own judgement on tightness of the nuts.

Get the valve gear out of the box and look it over. It relies on grease lubrication, so the shaft will have to be checked. Remove the rocker shaft and springs etc. by undoing either one of the greasers at one end of the shaft, or the bolt at the other. Don't loose the side thrust springs and the end washers, and note that the washers go between the springs and the end bolt/greasers, not between the spring and the rocker arm.

ROCKER ARMS & SHAFT Once the bolt and springs etc. are removed, the rocker shaft will pull out of the whole assembly. The rocker arms have a phosphor bronze bush at the pivot, and adjustable ball ended screws where the push rods do their bit. The valve end has a pressed-in semicircular headed pin, which runs on to the hardened caps on the valve stems.

None of my parts were in need of repair, but the bushes would be the sort of thing you could pull out with a bolt and spacer; replacements being turned up out of phosphor bronze bar. Clearances of 0.003" - 0.005" would be adequate (don't forget you have to get grease in there to lubricate the shaft, so superfine clearances may be too tight) and a fine groove cut around the inner circumference where the grease hole in the shaft communicates with the bush would ensure that the grease was forced around the bush and not just one side.

Ball ends could be turned from mild steel and case hardened, or make from one of the EN series steels that can be oil-hardened. (See 'Tuning for Speed' as already mentioned, for this sort of data) The semicircular nose pins are a little difficult for the amateur to make up, but it should be a fairly simple exercise in turning and milling. Make them out of a steel that you can harden, as there is little lubrication at this rubbing point of contact, and unhardened material will quickly wear away.

Lubricate everything with grease before assembly, and put a bit of anti-scuffing (Graphite grease or similar) grease between the valve stems and the hardened caps.

Once the injectors and valve gear are in place, the head is ready to be refitted to the cylinder block. Check that all of the four (10/2) or two (5/1, 6/1 et al) head dowels are in place, and they are seated squarely in their recesses in the head. If they have transferred their allegiance to the cylinder block it will not matter, as long as there are two for each head in the right place.

Put a new copper/asbestos gasket onto the cylinder block studs, usually keeping the crimped ring around the cylinder area on the lower side of the gasket. (the crimped ring is the top layer of copper on the gasket that has been swaged through the hole in the gasket where the cylinder is, to hold the gasket together)

Gently lower the cylinder head onto the gasket and check that it is sitting square, and that nothing looks out of true. Fit the long 3/8" stud into the head that holds both the rocker gear and the rocker cover in place, then slide the rocker shaft with rockers etc. onto this stud and the 9/16" stud adjacent. Fit the seven head nuts with a little light oil on the threads, and hand tighten all seven, tightening diagonal nuts in turn.

When you are ready to tighten the nuts fully, use the same tightening sequence but this time bring the torque wrench into play and do the nuts on two stages, one stage up to 45 lbs ft (6.21 kpm) for all nuts, and then second stage - fully tighten to 65 lbs ft (8.97 kpm) for the 9/16" studs from the cylinder to the head, and 100 lbs ft (13.80 kpm) for the 3/4 " studs that pass through the cylinder block from the crankcase to the cylinder head.

Fit the small 3/8" nut and washer to the rocket shaft block and tighten up. (Don't tighten this smaller nut until the main head nuts are tightened, and always loosen it off before you touch the others when dismantling)

Check again at the full torque after the engine has run and warmed up, as the gasket will 'give' a little.

Adjust the 'tappets' (a throwback from the sidevalve engine days when the adjusters were actually on the tappets themselves) and set to 0.017" or 0.43mm for the inlets (3/1, 5-1, 6-1 10-2 and 12/2) and 0.032" or 0.81mm for the exhausts. Note that 8-1 and 16-2 engines had 0.008" or 0.20mm for inlet and exhaust.

When setting the clearances, you should ensure that the backs of the cams are on the followers, so that there is no lifting of the tappet going on as you are setting up. The time-honoured way of doing this is to set the other valve in the pair (in the same cylinder) to fully open while you adjust the one that is shut, turning the engine over in the normal direction of rotation between adjustments. This method is pretty foolproof, especially on 'slow' cams such as are fitted on industrial engines.

The rocker cover can now be fitted, but first fill up the recesses around the two valve springs with engine oil. Some will leak down the guides but the main thing is to make sure that lubricant is in place ready for start-up. There is no rocker cover gasket, so just fit the cover and look for the bits and pieces to go with the fuel system.

My engine had machined holes above each injector as mentioned earlier, and it was not until later on in the writing of the book and assembly of the engine that I had an answer. Both David Harris and Vince (our local injection guru) told me that early injectors had a small pin and cap on the top of the injectors, which enabled an operator or service engineer to feel the injector needle movement (or not) as the engine was running.

The top housing was different to the standard injector type, and is shown on some of the works sectional drawings of the 5/1 etc. with the note: "Not used on latest models". My engine was built to a specification which mentioned 'inspection covers' but David Edgington did not know what it meant and suggested I ask David Harris. In the event, I had both answers on the same day !

The injection pumps can be fitted now, and as there are no gaskets between the pump flanges and the crankcase, they can be bolted straight into place. Leave any protective caps in place on the fuel unions, and turn the engine over by hand until the cam lobe for the fuel pump is away from the opening before bolting the pump down.

Note that the overload toggle or excess fuel device should be fitted to the pump on the starting handle end of the engine, opposite the fuel tank end. This is so that you can get at it when starting. (Single cylinder engines don't get a choice)

Having made a nice job of cleaning up the rusty throttle linkage, you can fit it back as it came off (you do remember don't you ?) and fit the governor spring and speed adjuster to the lower front of the crankcase.

Each clevis joint has one pin with a split pin at each end. I try to use small stainless steel split pins which although more expensive than standard steel ones, cause a lot less grief in later years, when you get to do this all over again (!!)

Whatever you preferences, make sure that the pins are cut off and wound in a tight curve against the pin, leaving no sharp ends to catch your hands on. Properly fitted split pins should look nice and tidy, not be hanging all over the place with different lengths of leg etc.

Once the linkages are all set, see that everything moves freely, (disconnect the governor link if necessary to allow movement) The pump control rods will move in and out of the pumps, and the two pumps should be synchronised as follows:-

One each control rack there are a set of graduations. These are used by the injection repair people to set the pump up, but you can also use them to see that at half and full throttle, the amount of control shaft movement is the same for both pumps. Most linkages will not have been disturbed since new, and apart from allowing for wear, should not show a significant deviation between the two pumps.

Each pump has a small steel pointer retained by a screw (which must not be distrurbed) pointing to the graduations on the control rack. Check by setting half or full throttle (remove the governor arm link from the main linkage and hold the throttle open with a pair of G clamps on the linkage, NOT on the fuel pump racks. Check each pointer and ensure that they are both in the same sector of the control shaft, and in the same position within that sector as near as possible.

If you have more than half of one graduation difference between the two pumps at full throttle, it will be worth adjusting the linkage to get them the same. Once adjusted, check at half throttle as well.

If the two cylinders are set up in this way, the engine will run sweeter at all throttle openings as both cylinders are getting the same fuel. If you are out on fuel settings, the engine will always run with one cylinder working harder than the other, causing shaking of the whole engine in severe cases.

If you have had to strip the adjusting bolts out of the plungers in the two end housings, you will have to check the pump spill timing. This is not a difficult process, but many fitters shy away from it as though it is a major job.

Before you start, run both the adjusting bolts down into the plungers and turn the engine over by hand and check the clearance between the plunger head and the base of the injection pump tappet (which can be seen if you look at the pump from the bottom when it is off the engine) You should have a minimum of 0.050" between the top of the plunger bolt head and the base of the fuel pump cam follower when the fuel cam is at the top of its travel and the fuel pump cam follower is pushed right up into the fuel pump body. This ensures that the fuel pump internals will not jam and break the pump components through negative clearances inside.

Next, remove the injector pipe from the delivery valve holder on top of the pump. Then remove the locking ring and screw from the delivery valve holder and undo the holder itself with a socket or ring spanner. Do not use an open ended spanner as the holder is very tight in the body.

Inside the delivery valve holder is a small spring and valve core, which should be carefully lifted out, keeping the bits together. If the fuel is turned on, it will flow out of the top of the pump, as the valve is not in place any more. Two types of valve were used originally, and later valves were different again, but they all look roughly similar.

Refit the delivery valve holder to the pump body, and just nip it up with the spanner. Turn the engine over until the timing mark on the flywheel is in line with the centre of the cylinder block. This should equate to 20 degrees before top dead centre (TDC) and can be physically checked on a piston if the heads are not yet fitted.

The fuel should now have stopped flowing. Turn the engine BACKWARDS until you see fuel start to flow again, then slowly turn FORWARDS until the fuel stops. The actual cutoff or spill point can be seen quite clearly, but if you wipe off any bubble of fuel from the top of the fuel pump delivery valve union, you should be able to see it more clearly.

At this point, the timing mark should be opposite the centre of the block again (or centre of the fuel filter if fitted) The actual point of cutoff can be varied by adjusting the length of the screw on the governor housing plunger; lengthening it will bring on or advance the cutoff point and shortening it will push back or retard the cutoff point. Don't forget to lock the screw with the locknut when finished.

The distance along the flywheel rim for the timing mark on a 24" flywheel is 4.25". Note that on single cylinder engines the timing mark is only usable when the engine is on the firing stroke (both valves closed) while on the twin, you will have to do this exercise twice, once for each pump.

When you are happy with the setup, refit the delivery valve and spring, refit the delivery valve holder and lock-ring and then refit the injector pipe(s) and bleed the system.

You MUST keep everything scrupulously clean while the fuel pump is in bits.

Another possibility mentioned by our local injection man, Vince, is to use the marking on the fuel pump body that should be put there by at the time of pump overhaul. The fuel pump tappet has a line machined around its circumference, which should line up with a mark in the tappet window at the base of the pump. The mark coincides with the line at the spill point.

As not everyone will scribe the making, or it may be obscured, the spill method can be used if in doubt, which is what diesel fitters had to do for years.

Vince also suggested the following setup method as an alternative to my own:
1) Turn engine so that timing mark on flywheel is in line with centre of block.
Fuel will run out of the pump as before.
2) Undo the screw on the plunger until the fuel stops flowing from the fuel pump.
3) Check by turning engine backwards until fuel flows, then forwards until it stops; check position of timing mark.
4) Refit delivery valve core and spring, followed by holder and locking ring etc.
5) Repeat steps 1 to 3 for other pump. Note that the firing point for the second
cylinder will be 360 degrees of engine rotation on from the first cylinder.

If the injection and leak-off pipes are in good condition, fit them to the engine, taking care to shape them so they do not rub against any fixed part of the engine. The leak-off pipe should run into a drain tin which is fitted to the end of the engine away from the starting handle. (Only on singles without radiator cooling)

If you do not have a tank, and don't want to see fuel dribbling everywhere when running, make up a new return pipe that goes back into the fuel tank via a new union on the tank. DON'T run it into the feed from the tank to the filter, as you will get air locks. Some modern fuel filters have leak-off and return facilities, but they are not original equipment.

The alternative is to fabricate a little drain tin about the size of a baked bean tin, with removable top lid and a bracket that matches that on the fuel filter. The only objection to this is the mess that comes out as you are travelling home with the trailer bouncing around on the road. You will have to drain the (small) amount of diesel before travelling.

My personal preference is for the leak-off pipe back to the tank, as it does away with loose diesel and the mess and smell that comes with it.

Fit the radiator and fuel tanks next, followed by the water and fuel pipes. Note that the older 10/2 engines may have the inter-cylinder water pipes made up from stubs with rubber hoses between them, while later units such as mine has cast water manifolds instead. The last production units seem to have reverted back to the composite pipes, as sales literature shows this type rather than the cast manifolds.

The gaskets used for the water system must be in good condition, and preferably of a water-resistant material. Plain paper will not be good enough, while the older graphited asbestos material is a good material if you can find some. See the appendix at the back of the book for gasket material thicknesses.

Some gaskets are available commercially for the engine, so if you wish you can buy the real thing. Note that the top and bottom water manifolds are different.

The radiator and fan assembly is fairly simple to fit, but do check the condition of the fan bearings and adjuster mechanism before bolting it all back together. The radiator is a conventional copper matrix assembly which should be no trouble to get tested and repaired. Mine was all missing, as you may have gathered from the photographs.

The fan belt is available as a spare part, or you can go to someone like Fenners (look under power transmission in yellow pages) or bearing suppliers to get a modern replacement. The crankshaft pulley has one or two grooves in it, one for the fan and one for the water circulating pump (if fitted)

Nothing stopping you fitting a small dynamo or alternator on to yours if one groove is free, or the water pump can be made up from something more modern and used on a spray cooling system. The pump was only fitted to export units intended for tropical climates and long running periods of hard work.

Make sure that the fan belt is not too tight, as while the main bearings will not object to the side loading, the fan bearings most certainly will, and will fail very quickly. About an inch of play in the middle of the fan belt run between pulleys is OK.

The spray cooling system had the pump in between the water tank bottom connection and the engine bottom connection. In use, the pump forced water into the engine, through the cylinder blocks and out of the top. The return to the tank was through a spray bar which cooled the water as it fell through the air into the tank. This system does not seem to have remained in use for very long, as the radiator cooling system replaced it for most applications.

The handbook mentions that if the circulating pump fails, then the water in the cylinder block(s) will run back to the tank, indicating that the total volume of water in use was much less than a tank cooled system. The only snags appear to be the loss of water through evaporation, as more is brought into air contact by the spray bar.

Note that it is worth using a modern water corrosion inhibitor in your cooling water, as it will prevent any further water jacket corrosion over the years. I have used soluble oil in engines in the past, but any good quality inhibitor such as used by Volvo or Scania in their truck engines will do the job. Note that this is NOT antifreeze, as you should be draining your engine during the winter.

Marine engineers stock inhibitor, and Volvo-Penta is one of the main agencies that will stock it. Scania is a bit more specialist in the marine world, but their truck dealers will probably be able to help. I have not been able to source anything similar in the smaller truck or car trade, but it is quite possible that you can find a similar product there.

If you want to use your engines all year round, then antifreeze is a must, and plenty of it ! Use a higher than average mix to provide anticorrosion protection, and also use rainwater (fresh, not something that has various items of marine life in it !) that has been filtered, in preference to tap water.

Once you have got your radiator, fuel tank and pipes fitted, go back to the flywheels.

Fit the oil throwers to the crankshaft, and push along with a tube and hammer. Be careful not to damage the running face, which is the widest part of the circumference (and should be at the outside when you fit the thrower) Oil the bearing seal felt ring, and turn the crankshaft as you fit the ring inside the bearing housing. The outside face of the thrower should be flush with the outside face of the bearing housing.

The flywheels can be moved into position on the shafts, using a little oil on the shafts to help them along. Once as far as they can go (there is an increased diameter on the bearing journals inboard of the flywheels) the keys can be fitted. This is where so many people go mad and spend a lot of time (and money) regretting it.

The proper keys are a taper fit between the top and bottom faces, but only the top face is actually tapered. The taper is small enough to allow insertion into the parallel keyway in the crankshaft and flywheel, but is also large enough to tighten up very quickly once the slack between the key and flywheel has been taken up. Once in place, the key needs to move only about 1/4" - 3/8" to hold the flywheel in place.

If you drive the key in more than necessary, you will stretch the keyway in the flywheel which is only cast iron, and you will probably damage the head of the key. You can always give it a quick check after running each day if you need assuring that it is still tight.

Factory drawings for the flywheel show the following dimensions running from the drive end (Fuel tank on the 10/2) to the other end:-

Drive end crankshaft - 8 7/8" (225.40mm) between the end of the shaft and the flywheel outer face.
Drive end Flywheel thickness - 3 1/2" (88.90mm)
Flywheel inner face to centre of engine base fixing hole - 2" (50.80mm)
Engine base fixing hole centres end to end - 22.00" (558.80mm)
Engine base fixing hole centre other end to inner flywheel face - 3.00" (76.20mm)
Starting end flywheel thickness - 3 1/2" (88.90mm)
Starting end flywheel outer face to crankshaft end - 7 1/8" (260.40mm)

Thus the drive end shaft end to the centre of the engine is 25 3/8" or 644.50 mm, and from the centre of the engine to the other end of the crankshaft at the starting en is 24 5/8" or 625.50mm.

The crankshaft area allocated for the starting handle is 2" long (50.80mm)
Parts list shows only one hub cover on the twin engine flywheels.

The last thing to be fitted on the flywheels (if you have them) is the pressed steel covers which go over the outer hubs of the flywheels. These are a trim piece which is a press fit over the hub. Great if you have them as they protect the key and keyway from dirt and water. They are still available as spares from Lister-Petter agents. Only one is required if you have a drive pulley fitted.

Exhausts and inlets remain to be fitted, and if you have nothing at all with your engine as I did, then you will have to get your wallet out and buy some bits as follows:

Exhaust ports are located at each end of the engine as already mentioned. Thus you can have either two separate exhaust pipes and silencers, or if you are lucky and have the optional exhaust manifold, then you only need buy one silencer. The preferred option for 10/2 show engines is two exhausts and a single inlet silencer. The exhausts are carried on a pair of large-radius bends of 1 1/2" BSP, with a distance between outer centres of about 165mm. This is a standard item, even today, and branches of BSS stock them or can get them in a day or so.

The silencers are standard Lister-Petter, and you will have to fork out for new ones from the agents. If you have the exhaust manifold, then the sizes are different, and you need a single silencer with a 2" BSP threaded end. Some pattern parts are available, but they tend to be fairly thin gauge metal to keep the tooling costs low, and therefore will not have as long a life as the original parts. If you only intend to run three or four times a year, this may not be a problem for you.

The inlet has a number of options also which are simplified on the 10/2 by the pairing of the inlet ports into a common manifold with a 1 1/2" BSP thread. Into this, one of three inlet filters can be fitted:-

1) Standard silencer.
2) Air maze oil bath filter.
3) Special felt element filter.

The standard silencer looks suspiciously like a standard Lister exhaust silencer, but I am sure there are internal differences; the air maze oil bath type is less common, and is for dusty conditions, while the felt element filter is the next most popular after the standard silencer.

Fittings are steel BSP pipes, and you can use black steel (unplated) items for all of the inlet and exhaust. Most if not all types of these fittings are readily available, even up to 2" BSP off the shelf.

A word of caution: We often see Listers and Petters and other engines with huge lengths of piping hanging off the engine, supporting a standard silencer at the end. The weight of the extra length of pipe has to be supported by the cast iron exhaust flange and the two bolts in the cast iron head.

Before you start fitting these extra bits and pieces, think about the strain you are subjecting your engine to, and also think about the day that one of your castings is going to fracture, just as you are leaving to go to the major show of the year.

Very few engine manufacturers fitted these lengths of piping to MOBILE engines. Thus while you will find many factory sales catalogues with pictures of 5/1, 6/1 and 10/2 with no inlet or exhaust at all, I have yet to see anything in the sales literature showing these enormous stacks. Add to this the fact that no OEM equipment manufacturers would have fitted anything other than that supplied or recommended by the engine maker, and it all adds up to a big question mark over the long stacks at rallies.

A FIXED installation was a different matter, and Lister recommend exhaust pipe sizes up to 3" diameter for the 10/2 where the path out to fresh air necessitates a long exhaust; i.e. 20 feet or more.

Personal preferences apart, I feel that any engine looks best with a tidy inlet and exhaust of modest proportions, that of the Lister 'D' almost always coming across as particularly neat.

The 10/2 as a rally exhibit can have straight or curved pipes for the exhaust, with the standard or felt element inlet silencers. Once you have chosen, paint the pipes in black exhaust paint, not silver. The fittings are available to make up a bewildering range of curves and bends, but mine will have only the two on the exhaust. Make sure that the gaskets between the exhaust and inlet stubs and the head are OK, and check that all the nuts do not have any lock or spring washers on. The factory did not fit them.

Use care when screwing fittings into castings, as it is quite easy to get enough turning force on the joint to expand the exhaust stub and crack it. If you cannot get the right position on the exhaust bends for example, try swapping the bends over, the other one may fit better. Failing that, get hold of a 1 1/2" BSP tap and run the thread through a bit more.

Use stillsons on the pipes if you must, but I prefer to use the actual pipe bend as the object to turn, using a bar inside the open end. You cannot do this with a straight pipe, and the only other option is a chain wrench with some copper or steel strip wound round the pipe to protect the surface.

The exhaust will not get over-hot with normal rally running, but you will have to be careful not to get burnt on all the large areas of pipe and exhaust silencer that are about. Although a low-speed engine, it will eventually get pretty hot, even when ticking over at 650 rpm.

Your engine should now be almost finished, with only paintwork to touch up and the fuel system to bleed. But first, a few items that have not been covered so far;

The breather takes the form of a steel disk which is arranged as a reed valve inside a cast housing. The valve lets air flow one way by lifting up off its seat, but not the other.

The valve only has six bits: the disc, the two housing parts, gasket, and the bolt and spacer holding it all together. The disc is still available from David Harris at the time of compiling this book, and the other bits are unlikely to need replacement except the gasket (see fig 24) which can be made.

Remove the top blanking plug in the oil pump, and fill the pump with oil. Replace the plug. If you are really conscientious you could take the pump off and fill the internal pipes with oil as well, but the amount of oil you should have used on assembly will keep the bearings lubricated for some time before you run into problems, and the engine pump should be provided lubrication well before then.

Once the oil pump has been primed, set the exhaust valve lifters so that the valves of both cylinders are held off their seats, and turn the engine over a few times to get the oil pump primed with oil all the way from the sump up to the pump outlet. If you take off the blanking plug now, the pump should squirt out oil on each revolution of the crank.

If nothing comes out, have a look at the non-return valves in the pump itself and the loose ball at the bottom of the 'pigs tail' pipe inside the oil drain union.

This is one process which has to be carried out whenever the fuel system is disturbed, or at least when the fuel pumps are drained of diesel. You have not got a lift pump to worry about, as the engine tank (capacity 2 3/4 imp. gallons 12.50 litres) provides a gravity feed to both pumps.

The injection pumps have to have a positive fuel pressure at the inlet pipe from the tank, as the pump will not draw fuel through by itself. The amount of fuel injected at each power stroke is very small, and the pump element although moving at a constant stroke (up and down) is not actually pumping a large quantity of fuel on each stroke.

First fill the fuel tank with clean fuel, having cleaned out the dirt and water that was in there when you bought the engine. Check that the fuel will actually run out of the fuel main tap when you open it (into a jamjar please, not over the engine) Many taps will be full of rust and dirt, and will not pass anything until cleared out.

Next, fit the fuel pipes from the tank tap to each of the pumps. This pipe is normally a single pipe with a tee in the left hand side which runs to the tank tap. Fit new banjo washers on the joints, and then turn on the fuel tap and check for leaks.

Next loosen each end banjo in turn, to allow air out and the fuel to run down to the fuel pumps. Once you have fuel at each of the banjos you can tighten the banjos and loosen off the bleed screws on the pumps. This should allow fuel to bubble out once it has filled the internal chamber around the pump element. Once the fuel comes out without any air froth or bubbles, you can tighten the bleed screws, gently.

Before you can run the engine, the fuel has got to get from the pump up to the injectors. The quantity of fuel pumped on each stroke of the fuel pump, even at full throttle, will take a lot of engine cranking to achieve. Therefore, and I take no personal credit for this particular dodge, you can fill the pipes from the injector with diesel and refit them to the injector pumps, holding your finger over the top end to stop the fuel flowing out.

Leave the top ends loose on the injectors, but only by half a turn. Give the engine a few turns with the handle (what do you mean, where's the starter button) and check that there is diesel coming out of the loose injector pipe joints within ten turns of the handle. You should have the valve lifters deployed at this time, or you will very quickly get knackered or have a heart attack.

Once you have fuel at the injectors, tighten up the pipe unions, and give a few more turns to get fuel into the inlet pipes. It all sounds a bit long winded, but as you cannot wind this engine over on the starter, you will have to go through this ritual every time you overhaul the fuel system.

At last, you can try to start the engine !

Make sure that your engine is securely held down to whatever it is sitting on, and that you have enough ventilation around you to prevent anyone being asphyxiated by engine fumes. Also make sure that you can shut the engine down if neccesary should a runaway engine situation develop through a stuck linkage or whatever. It is too easy to get carried away after weeks or months of restoration and forget basic safety principles.

A fire extinguisher would be useful, just in case.

Set both valve lifters to the running position (they are not engaged with the valve tappets of either cylinder) and check that you have compression by slowly cranking the engine. If OK, go for a start-up.

Set both valve lifters to start position (lifters are engaged with both exhaust valve tappets) crank the engine until you have enough speed to start the engine and then disengage the first valve lifter and keep on cranking ! if you are lucky, the first cylinder will fire with a huge cloud of smoke from the exhaust, after which you can disengage the second valve lifter with similar results.

Things will very quickly get a bit hectic, as the oil that you assembled the pistons and liners with will burn off, the excess fuel that was in the cylinder from all the cranking will also burn off, and the noise and smoke will probably frighten the life out of you ! In actual fact, the cold start engines are quite leisurely at starting and do not suddenly speed up from start as the flywheels are too damn big !

Keep the engine speed down by holding the governor control rod by hand, or the fuel control rod on one of the pumps. Let the engine run at a fast tickover, and check that it is running evenly and on both cylinders. Once you have satisfied yourself that it is OK, stop it and let it cool down. In any event do not exceed one minute with no water in the cooling system. When you have had a clear up, fill up with water if you haven't already done it, and the engine is ready for a prolonged run. Start up and let the engine run until it has reached a reasonable temperature (about half an hour)

While it is running, check that there is oil pressure in the lubricating system by using the oil gauge and tap. If you don't have a tap, fit a gauge temporarily in place of the oil blanking plug on top of the oil pump. Do not run the engine long with the gauge on, as the pulsing of the oil feed will destroy the gauge mechanism. Just satisfy yourself that you have oil pressure on a reliable basis. Stop the engine and remove the gauge.

After a good run, stop the engine and remove the rocker covers. Tighten the cylinder head bolts to their maximum torque, check the tappets again as they will close up when you pull the heads down, then refit the covers. When tightening the head bolts, you may prefer to undo each nut in turn until it is free, then fully tighten again to the correct torque. This was the preferred method used on larger diesels, and prevents the breakaway torque of the tightened nut from overriding the set torque figure.

Your are now almost finished with the restoration, but there are things that you should check over before the engine can be cleaned and displayed:

1) Check over all external bolts and nuts.
2) Check water hoses.
3) Check and adjust fan belt.
4) Clean off any oil or diesel.
5) Top up coolant.
6) Check flywheel keys.
7) Check oil pipes on oil distribution manifold (inside crankcase)
8) Check over the fuel tank mountings.
9) Touch up paintwork.

An engine log book should be started, so that you have a record of hours run and rallies attended.

You can now relax for a couple of weeks until you find the next engine to restore.

After the 6/1 engine arrived during the writing of this book, we did spend a whole afternoon tinkering around with it and generally getting to know it inside out. The more you know your way around your own engine, the less chance there is of anything going wrong without your noticing it.

We found, for example, that the cold start valve was damaged, probably through running with it not tightened on to its seat properly. This resulted in blowby from the cold-start valve threads when the valve was in the low compression setting. So spend a bit of time getting to know your engine, it always pays off.

The engine will need to be serviced at fairly regular intervals, as slow exhibition running doesn't do a lot for the oil or the piston rings. Most diesels will begin to glaze their rings and bores if left to run on no load for long periods. This is particularly bad on modern engines, and I have had exhaust fires in generators, where they have run on less than 25% load for long periods, putting oil in the exhaust cladding. This subsequently caught fire as soon as full load was required and the exhaust got up to full temperature.

There is not a lot you can do about this, and although it is not as bad on slow-speed diesels, it will still occur to most engines.

Oil should be a monograde diesel oil made by a reputable company. Don't use Sainsbury's Multi-grade oil, the engine was never designed to run on anything as thin as 15W40, and while I am sure that Sainsbury's oil is made by a reputable supplier, it is not thick enough to give the kind of protection you need. BP used to make monograde oils for diesels, but if you get stuck, try a Caterpillar dealer like Levertons, or failing that, try a marine engine dealer. Castol market the old XL grade and others under the Castrol Classic brands, and although quite expensive and there is no diesel grade available, you could do a lot worse.

Every couple of oil changes, say once a season, take out the oil strainer on the suction side of the oil pump and have a look at the mesh to see how dirty it is getting. Any large amounts of carbon flakes or general sludge will have to be cleaned out of the engine with a flushing oil or something similar.

© Peter & Rita Forbes 2000 - 2003
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7

Appendices Index Main